ProfessNathanHLentsor Nathan H. Lents is  of Molecular Biology at John Jay College and Macaulay Honors College,  City University of New York.

It is now clear that the various aspects of moral behavior in humans, from rules for fair exchanges to empathy and altruism have a long evolutionary history in the various lineages of social animals. To fully understand the nature of moral instincts and behaviors, it is necessary to understand the biological value of those instincts for individual animals.

In order to “activate” human morality and thus promote a more ethical society, it is necessary to understand the biological origin of moral behaviors and how they benefit individuals, not just societies as a whole.